Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group, LLC Blog

BSMPG 2012 Summer Seminar Highlights - Irving "Boo" Schexnayder

Posted by Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group on Wed, Aug 15, 2012 @ 07:08 AM


Click below to see highlights from our 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar featuring Keynote Speaker, Irving "Boo" Schexnayder.

More highlights are set to come in the next few weeks so stay tuned!





Save the date for the 2013 BSMPG Summer Seminar - May 17th & 18th in Boston MA.


Keynote Speakers include: Dr. Stuart McGill, Dr. Marco Cardinale, Fergus Connolly, Adriann Louw and Marvin Chun.  Individual learning track speakers will be announced shortly. 


This is sure to be the biggest Sports Medicine and Sports Performance Seminar to date!

A special thanks again to our SPONSORS!

Topics: Art Horne, BSMPG, athletic training conference, boston hockey conference, Bill Knowles, Marco Cardinale, Marvin Chun, Stuart McGill

Leopards or Turtles? by Jose Fernandez

Posted by Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group on Fri, May 11, 2012 @ 07:05 AM




Basketball is a multifactorial sport where recovery, nutrition, training, technical & tactical aspects, mental preparation and innate conditions are involved. As S&C coaches, our ultimate goal is to enhance the team performance by optimising each player´s physical condition and helping them stay away from injuries.

Profiling athletes is an important part of the training process that helps me to decide what is the most appropriate strategy for each of the players I coach.

The image below represents the average results of 3 pre-season assessments to determine the % of Type I muscle fiber (Slow Twitch). It is an example of two different football players, both of them playing for the same team but with a different muscular profile.

The player on the left seems to have lower predominance of slow twitch as every muscle group except Semitendinosus (very postural muscle) is within 30-45% of slow muscle fibres.

The player on the right seems to have higher predominance of slow twitch, especially on key muscle groups like Biceps Fem (59,8%) and Gluteus Max (62%).

Click HERE to continue reading...

See Jose and other internationally known speakers at the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar May 19-20th.

Hurry - Seats are limited.


Click me




Topics: Art Horne, basketball performance, BSMPG, Craig Liebenson, boston hockey conference, Cal Dietz, Bill Knowles, Alan Grodin, Barefoot in Boston, Dan Boothby

Up the Chain It Goes... (Part II)

Posted by Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group on Fri, May 4, 2012 @ 07:05 AM

By Art Horne


turf toe derrick rose toe injury



In a follow up from a previous post (Up The Chain It Goes), additional evidence supporting the relationship within the kinetic chain has emerged from south of the equator.  In a study out of South Africa examining the link between available dorsiflexion and mechanical low back pain researchers found a statistically significant decrease in ankle dorsiflexion ROM and associated reporting of low back pain (Brantingham, 2006).   With the vast majority of adults suffering from low back pain at some time in their life, (some reports are up to 85%) and 80% of people reporting foot problems during their lifespan, it’s not a surprise to see that these two conditions may very well be related.

Let’s take a closer look:

Methods: “ The study was a blinded, 2-arm, non-randomized clinical study involving 100 subjects with chronic or recurrent mechanical low back pain (intervention group) and 104 subjects without chronic mechanical low back pain (control group) between the ages of 18 and 45.  A blind assessor performed weight-bearing goniometry of the ankle and big toe and the navicular drop test on all subjects in both groups.”

Results: “An independent t-test (inter-group) revealed a statistically significant decrease in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain.”

Conclusions: “This study’s data found that a statistically significant decrease in ankle dorsiflexion ROM, but not flatter feet, was associated with subject report of chronic mechanical low back pain disorders.”

Discussion: “The findings of this blinded study support previous reports suggesting that decreased ankle dorsiflexion may be a factor in chronic mechanical low-back pain.  There was no clear association found between decreased hallux ROM and mechanical low back pain in this study.  If these findings are confirmed through additional studies, exercise and manipulation therapy to increase ankle range of motion could become an important consideration in the treatment of some patients with mechanical low back pain disorders.”

Hmmm, if only we had some additional studies….

Perhaps this will help.

During a routine exit physical, 60 division one athletes were assessed for available weight bearing dorsiflexion bilaterally as described by Bennell et al in 1998 (inclinometer was replace by Clinometer app for ITouch) to examine limitations in this movement.   Ten athletes with limited weight bearing dorsiflexion (less than 4 inches from knee to wall) volunteered for follow up evaluation and manual treatment. Out of the initial 120 measured ankles, 47 ankles (21 right, 26 left) demonstrated limited weight bearing dorsiflexion range of motion.

Athletes were then asked to walk normally in their athletic shoes while wearing an in-shoe pressure sensor (Tekscan) and through an optical measurement system (Optojump).  Each athlete then underwent a general manual therapy intervention aimed to improve ankle dorsiflexion, followed again by the same gait analysis and pressure mapping data capture.


Gait Evaluation



Gait Cliff Notes: optimal gait should have two mountains with a trough between them. The first mountain represents heel strike to midstance, the trough representing the mid-stance phase, and the second mountain being propulsion from full foot contact to toe-off.

Easy right? Good. 

Note: The second mountain should almost always be higher than the first.


Case Study 1:

Tekscan report


Pre-treatment (RED):

Notice how the first mountain is slightly higher than the second – this is BAD!

Remember from our cliff notes: the second mountain should be higher.

Post-treatment (GREEN):

Notice change in toe off from pre- to post-treatment which specifically targeted patient's limited dorsiflexion?  The second mountain is now higher than the first. That’s a GOOD thing!

Awesome right?

Better yet – athlete was measured 3 days post treatment and improvement in Dorsiflexion range of motion stuck!  Try doing that with a slant board stretch.


See Art Horne and Dr. Pete Viteritti discuss these and other changes at the foot and ankle, and how to assess and address soft tissue and bony restrictions in their presentation at the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar May 19-20th in Boston.


Click me



Bennell KL, Talbot RC, Wajswelner H, Techovanich W, Kelly DH and Hall AJ. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of a weight-bearing lunge measure of ankle dorsiflexion. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 44;175-180.

Brantingham JW, Gilbert JL, Shaik J, Globe G. Sagittal plane blockage of the foot, ankle and hallux and foot alignment-prevalence and association with low back pain. J of Chiropractic Medicine. 2006; 4(5); 123-127.




Topics: Art Horne, basketball performance, basketball training programs, boston hockey conference, barefoot strength training, Bruce Williams, Cal Dietz, Bill Knowles, Barefoot in Boston, Chris Powers, Dorsiflexion


Posted by Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group on Thu, May 3, 2012 @ 07:05 AM


by Art Horne

In the classic model for the care of student athletes, sports medicine and performance training services are provided under the supervision of the athletics department. This has been challenged recently with suggestions of alternate organizational schemes, including at Boston University, where oversight of athletic training services was transferred from athletics to college health, arranging athletic training services into “medically-oriented units.”

At Boston University, they noted some key advantages: delivery of superior health care services, improved on-going educational opportunities for staff and students, and enhanced working conditions for athletic trainers.

In 2011, here at Northeastern University we followed suit, placing both athletic training and performance services under the direct supervision of sports medicine personnel. The head team physician for the university provides oversight for a dual-trained athletic trainer and strength coach who directs these sports performance services. These changes were in response to difficulties we had observed, including an apparent lack of standardization of services, especially related to prevention models provided by athletic training and strength and conditioning.

Also apparent were communication breaches between and among the coaching staff, strength and conditioning personnel, sports medicine providers, and the student-athletes who were receiving care from these individuals.

So university authorities agreed to implement a new model for the care of student athletes that placed athletic training as well as strength and conditioning under the supervision of sports medicine. This allowed us to consider the potential advantages as well as challenges that will be encountered as the model is implemented.

One clear advantage is to improve collaboration during pre-participation screening for athletes. In 2007, the NCAA mandated that all student athletes receive a pre-participation examination (PPE) by medical staff prior to engaging in collegiate sports.


Continue to read this article by clicking HERE


Meet the Leaders in Sports Medicine and Performance at the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar, May 19-20th in Boston.


Click me



Topics: Art Horne, basketball resources, athletic training conference, boston hockey conference, Leaders, Leaders in Performance

Interview with Coach Schexnayder : 2012 BSMPG Seminar Keynote Speaker

Posted by Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group on Mon, Apr 30, 2012 @ 07:04 AM

LSU jump



This is part 1 of the weekly “Friday Five” series where I ask 5 tough questions to world class elite coaches.

Irving "Boo" Schexnayder is regarded internationally as one of the leading authorities in training design, especially in the Jump events.  He coached triple jumper Walter Davis, long jumper John Moffitt, and 19 NCAA Champions.

Boo will be speaking at the Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group (BSMPG) on May 19-20, 2012.

You can also see his complete jumps DVD package for the Long, Triple and High Jump (plus a weight training bonus).

Q1 –  A lot of confusion and mystery lies with the true volumes of jump training that is sufficient for stimulating neuromuscular adaptions and teaching. While small doses are often looked at as the goal, teaching takes repetition. Could you expand on how important the sequence of the training year and the quality of foot strike?  Can you explain why it seems that some programs thrive off of higher volumes while some just lead to injury?

BOO:  As far as foot strike, the ability to properly dissipate impact forces through full-footed landings is obviously a huge help to staying injury free while jump training. I think there are two other, more subtle keys to successful progression and remaining injury free in jump training. The first lies in variety, specifically advancing training cycles in a timely fashion. The other is taking a purposeful approach to the process.

Just as athletes do, we as coaches tend to settle into comfort zones. You get your athletes doing particular forms of jump training. Then, as mastery is approached, it’s time to move on to something else, but our natural tendency is to breathe easy and admire our work for a while. Periodic shifts in exercise choice, volume and intensity are critical, even though they might make life for the coach tougher. Successful higher volume programs do this and show a bit of a pioneer spirit.

Also, everything done must have a very specific purpose. That purpose might be establishing initial volumes, technical development, high end or low end elastic strength development, or whatever. It’s easy to fall into a “this is my fallback workout” philosophy if you are not targeting something specific. This is the primary rationale behind the small volume programs, and I think this is the key with high training age athletes who have already accumulated injuries and other physical issues over the course of a career.

In either case, whether it is failure to progress or mindless repetition, at this point jump training quits being a stimulus and becomes simply another piece of baggage that must be carried around that increases injury risk.

Q2 – You mention that Olympic lifts are great harmonizing agents to a program. With your experience could you address what mechanisms and systems such as posture and coordination enable the lifts to transfer to sprinting and jumping?

BOO:  The results I see in my program are the main reason I feel strongly about using Olympic lifts. I don’t want to give anyone the impression that I researched them first and then started to use them. My personal journey was more of a matter of seeing huge gains and then figuring out why.

I think the orders of joint firing and the mixing of absolute strength, power, and eccentric activity show huge transfer into sport specific skills. Also, the need to stabilize the core while performing something functional like an Olympic lift does more for the body’s core than all the crunches in the world. In short, they are highly functional.

I am a fan of functional training. But I have never gone completely that way, always keeping a base in more old school approaches. Maybe it’s because I started my career in football, but it’s also because I have watched too many great athletes train that way to scrap it.

I think a key variable in strength training is the amount of muscle tissue activated in the course of a repetition. That variable, more than any other, affects blood chemistry and endocrine responses. Many exercises are functional but don’t elicit enough muscle fiber activation to accomplish this. Olympics are where gross movements meet functional training and old school meets new school.


Continue reading on   


See Coach Schexnayder at the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar as he talks, "Mulitjump Exercises: Applications for Teaching, Training, and Rehab"


Coach Schexnayder joins Chris Powers, Craig Liebenson, Bill Knowles, and Alan Grodin as Keynotes speaers.  See these world class speakers along with the best Sports Medicine, Hockey and Basketball therapists and performance coaches throughout the weekend - May 19-20.

Register today before seats fill up!


Click me





Topics: basketball conference, BSMPG, boston hockey summit, Craig Liebenson, boston hockey conference, athletic training books, Cal Dietz, Bill Knowles, Barefoot in Boston

Up the Chain it Goes...

Posted by Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group on Sun, Apr 29, 2012 @ 15:04 PM

By Art Horne



derrick rose torn acl



With recent season ending ACL injuries to New York Knicks Iman Shumpert, and Chicago Bull’s point guard Derrick Rose coming on the same day, (not to mention Eric Maynor from the Thunder and Spanish Star Ricky Rubio earlier this season) discussion has arisen as to how these terrible injuries could have been avoided.  Although the possible contributing factors are endless, ranging from previous injury to simply fatigue, one area worth shedding more light on, especially in the case of young Rose, is the implication of the kinetic chain as a whole.

Let’s start at the ground and work our way up.

I think we’d all agree that the big toe is a big deal.   But how closely are we looking at this “pivotal” body-ground juncture?

In a study by Munuera et al, researchers found that “Hallux interphalangeal joint dorsiflexion was greater in feet with hallux limitus than in normal feet.  There was a strong inverse correlation between first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion and hallux interphalangeal joint dorsiflexion.” (Munuera et al, 2012). 

TRANSLATION: People with abnormally stiff or limited motion at the great toe had excessive motion at the joint just distal.

If you don’t have mobility where you need it, you’ll surely get it somewhere else.

Let’s move up the chain shall we?

In a study by Van Gheluwe and his group,  researchers looked at how a stiff or limited great toe joint changes the way we walk.  In their study, “two populations of 19 subjects each, one with hallux limitus and the other free of functional abnormalities, were asked to walk at their preferred speed while plantar foot pressures were recorded along with three-dimensional foot kinematics.  The presence of hallux limitus, structural or functional, caused peak plantar pressure under the hallux to build up significantly more and at a faster rate than under the first metatarsal head.  Additional discriminators for hallux limitus were peak dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, time to this peak value, peak pressure ratios of the first metatarsal head and the more lateral metatarsal heads, and time to maximal pressure under the fourth and fifth metatarsal heads.  Finally, in approximately 20% of the subjects, with and without hallux limitus, midtarsal pronation occurred after heel lift, validating the claim that retrograde midtarsal pronation does occur.”

TRANSLATION: if you have a limited motion in your great toe, pressure changes will occur – increase pressure changes will cause pain over time (think blister on your foot).

And pain changes the way we move – period.

Let’s take a look at the ankle.

In an article  by Denegar et al, the authors outline the importance of regaining normal talocrural joint arthrokinematics following an ankle injury.   The authors note,

 “All of the athletes we studied had completed a rehabilitation program as directed by their physician under the supervision of a certified athletic trainer, and had returned to sports participation.  Furthermore, all had performed some form of heel-cord stretching. None, however, had received joint mobilization of the talocrural complex.  Despite the return to sports and evidence of restoration in dorsiflexion range of motion, there was restriction of posterior talar mobility in most of the injured ankles.  Posterior talar mobilization shortens the time required to restore dorsiflexion range and a normal gait.  Without proper talar mobilization, dorsiflexion range of motion may be restored through excessive stretching of the plantar flexors, excessive motion at surrounding joints, or forced to occur through an abnormal axis of rotation at the talocrural joint.” (pg. 172)

TRANSLATION: I repeat, Without proper talar mobilization, dorsiflexion range of motion may be restored through excessive stretching of the plantar flexors, excessive motion at surrounding joints, or forced to occur through an abnormal axis of rotation at the talocrural joint.” (pg. 172)

If you don’t have normal ankle motion, and specifically at the talus, your ankle motion (although appearing normal) is probably coming from other joints and/or in a combination with foot pronation.


Foot Pronation = Tibial Internal Rotation

Tibial Internal Rotation = Femoral Internal Rotation

Tibia and Femur Internal Rotation  =  Knee Valgus (or knee collapse)

Knee Valgus = BAD


But just because you have some extra motion doesn’t mean you’re doomed right?


But, excessive motion without the ability to control that motion certainly does.  So where does knee control come from? The Hip!

But hip strength, control, and neuromuscular timing is seldom appreciated, and in the case of the basketball athlete it is certainly poorly measured, especially after ankle injury.

In a study by Bullock-Saxton, researchers investigated muscle activation during hip extension after ankle sprain and showed a changes in timing of muscle activation in the ankle sprain grouped compared to the non-injured group.

 “the results highlight the importance of the clinician’s paying attention to function of muscles around the joints separated from the site of injury.  Significant delay of entry of the gluteus maximus muscle into the hip extension pattern is of special concern, as it has been proposed by Janda that the early activation of this muscle provides appropriate stability to the pelvis in such functional activities as gait.” (pg. 333)


In another study examining ipsilateral hip strength/weakness after the classic ankle sprain, researchers demonstrated that subjects with unilateral chronic ankle sprains had weaker hip abduction strength and less plantar flexion range of motion on the involved sides (Friel et al., 2006)

“Our findings of weaker hip abductors in the involved limb of people with chronic ankle sprains supports this view of a potential chronic loss of stability throughout the kinetic chain or compensations by the involved limb, thus contributing to repeat injury at the ankle.” (pg. 76)

“If the firing, recruitment, and strength of the hip abductor muscles in people with ankle sprains have been altered because of the distal injury, the frontal-plane stability normally supplied by this muscle is lacking, and the risk for repeat injury increases.  Weak hip abductors are unable to counteract the lateral sway, and an injury to the ankle may ensue.”

TRANSLATION: Ankle sprains cause neuromuscular changes up the chain and specifically in the hip.  If this weakness is not addressed after an ankle injury,” frontal-plane stability normally supplied by this muscle is lacking.” 


Lack of frontal-plane stability + Knee Valgus = Injury


Of course suggesting that the above points are exactly the reason for which Rose suffered his injury is certainly a stretch and not the intention of this post, nor is it to question the treatment that he or any other NBA player received prior to their devastating injury (for the record, the Chicago Bulls Sports Medicine and Strength Staff are regarded as one of the very best in the league).  What I am suggesting however is that examining athletes and patients with the use of advanced technology to determine a state of readiness to participate, and/or examine more closely changes in gait and neuromuscular firing is certainly worth pursuing, especially in light of the ever-rising salaries within professional sports.  A quick look is certainly worth the small investment.

One thing is for sure, ACL injury is not limited to teenage females or only seen on the soccer pitch.


Previous Posts:

The NBA Should Have Learned From The NFL - Injuries On The Rise

Did The NBA Lock-out Ultimately End Chauncey Billups' Career?


See lectures directly related to gait, injury prevention, and performance at the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar:

1. Dr. Bruce Williams: Hit the ground running: Appreciating the importance of foot strike in NBA injuries

2. Dr. Bruce Williams: Breakout Session: Restoring Gait with evidence based medicine

3. Art Horne and Dr. Pete Viteritti: Improving Health & Performance - Restoring ankle dorsiflexion utilizing a manual therapy approach

4. Dr. Tim Morgan: Biomechanics and Theories of Human Gait: Therpeutic and Training Considerations

5. Jose Fernandez: Advanced Player Monitoring for Injury Reduction



See the most advanced player monitoring equipment currently available at the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar:


 zeo affectiva  ithlete

BioSensics  Zflo insideTracker


Dartfish  freelap timing   Tekscanoptosource

Click me




Munuera PV, Trujillo P, Guiza L, Guiza I. Hallux Interphalangeal Joint Range of Motion in Feet with and Without Limited First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dorsiflexion. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 102(1): 47-53, 2012.

Denegar, C., Hertel, J., Fonesca, J.  The Effect of Lateral Ankle Sprain on Dorsiflexion Range of Motion, Posterior Talar Glide, and Joint Laxity.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002; 32(4):166-173.


Van Gheluwe B, Dananberg HJ, Hagman F, Vanstaen K. Effects of Hallux Limitus on Plantar Foot Pressure and Foot Kinematics During Walking. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 96(5): 428-436, 2006.

Bullock-Saxton, J. E., Janda, V., & Bullock, M. I. (1994) The Influence of Ankle Sprain Injury on Muscle
Activation during Hip Extension. Int. J. Sports Med. Vol. 15 No. 6, 330-334.

Friel, K., McLean, N., Myers, C., & Caceres, M. (2006). Ipsilateral Hip Abductor Weakness After Inversion
Ankle Sprain. Journal of Athletic Training. Vol. 41 No.1, 74-78

Smith RW, Reischl SF. Treatment of ankle sprains in young athletes. Am J Sports Med. 1986;14:465-471.

Topics: Art Horne, basketball performance, basketball training programs, BSMPG, athletic training conference, Charlie Weingroff, boston hockey conference, barefoot strength training, Andrea Hudy, Bruce Williams, Cal Dietz, Alan Grodin, Barefoot in Boston, Dr. DiMuro, Dan Boothby, Chris Powers, achilles pain, Dorsiflexion, ankle problems

Meet Chris Powers - 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar Keynote Speaker

Posted by Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group on Sat, Apr 28, 2012 @ 08:04 AM


Over the last decade no one has changed the way we approach and treat knee pain more than Chris Powers.  

Learn how the Hip is a major factor when it comes to the aches and pains associated with your knee at the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar!


Chris Powers 

Topic: Proximal Factors Contributing to Running Injuries


Christopher M. Powers is an Associate Professor in the Division of Biokinesiology & Physical Therapy, and Co-Director of the MBRL at USC. He also has joint appointments in the Departments of Radiology and Orthopaedic Surgery within the Keck School of Medicine.  His primary teaching responsibilities include the areas of biomechanics and the mechanics of human gait. He received a Bachelors degree in Physical Education from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1984, his Masters degree in Physical Therapy from Columbia University in 1987, and a Ph.D. in Biokinesiology in 1996 from USC. Dr. Powers did his post-doctoral training at the Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, University of California, Irvine.

Dr. Powers studies the biomechanical aspects of human movement. More specifically, his research and publications are concerned with the kinematic, kinetic and muscular actions associated with human movement, the pathomechanics of orthopedic disabilities and issues related to rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system. He has published over 90 peer-reviewed articles and has received several research awards from the American Physical Therapy Association, including the Rose Excellence in Research Award from the Orthopaedic Section, the Eugene Michels New Investigator Award, the Dorothy Briggs Scientific Inquiry Award and the Helen J Hislop Award for contributions to the professional literature.

Dr. Powers is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and a member of the American Physical Therapy Association (Orthopaedic and Research sections), American Society for Biomechanics, American Society for Testing and Measures, and the North American Society for Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis. In addition, Dr. Powers is on several editorial boards including the Journal of Applied BiomechanicsJournal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, and the Journal of Athletic Training.  He is an active member of the American Physical Therapy Association, serving as President of the Section on Research.



  • Postdoctoral Fellow, Orthopaedic Biomechanics (1996-1997), University of California, Irvine, CA
  • Ph.D. Biokinesiology (1996). University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
  • M.S. Physical Therapy (1987). Columbia University, New York, NY
  • B.A. Physical Education (1984). University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA

Selected Publications

  • Stefanik JJ, Zhu Y, Zumwalt AC, Gross KD, Clancy M, Lynch JA, Frey LA, Lewis CE, Roemer FW,Powers CM, Guermazi A, Felson DT. The association between patella alta and the prevalence and worsening of structural features of patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis: The Multicenter Osteoarthritics Study. Arthritis Care & Res (In press).
  • Farrohki S, Colletti PM, Powers CM. Differences in patella cartilage thickness, T2 relaxation time and cartilage deformational behavior: A comparison of young females with and without patellofemoral pain. Am J Sports Med (In press).
  • Chen YJ, Scher I, Powers CM. Quantification of patellofemoral joint reaction forces during functional tasks: A subject specific, three dimensional model. J Appl Biomech (In press).
  • Kulig K, Harper-Hanigan K, Souza RB, Powers CM. Measurement of femoral torsion by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging: Concurrent validity. Phys Ther (In pre).
  • Souza RB, Draper CE, Fredericson M, Powers CM. Femur rotation and patellofemoral joint kinematics: A weight-bearing MRI analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 40:277-285, 2010.
  • Powers CM, Chen YJ, Scher I, Lee TQ. Multi-plane loading of the extensor mechanism alters the patellar ligament force/quadriceps force ratio. J Biomed Eng. 132:024503, 2010.
  • Fithian DC, Powers CM, Khan N. Rehabilitation of the knee following medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. Clin Sports Med. 29:283-290, 2010.
  • Powers CM, Blanchette MG, Brault JR, Flynn J, Siegmund GP. Validation of walkway tribometers: Establishing a reference standard. Submitted to: J Forensic Sci. 55:366-370, 2010.
  • Powers CM. The influence of abnormal hip mechanics on knee injury: A biomechanical perspective. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 40:42-51, 2010.
  • Wagner T, Behnia N, Ancheta WL, Shen R, Farrokhi S, Powers CM. Strengthening and neuromuscular re-education of the gluteus maximus in a triathlete with exercise-association cramping of the hamstrings: A case report. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 40:112-119, 2010.
  • Tonley JC, Dye JA, Kochevar RJ, Yun SM, Farrokhi S, Powers CM. Treatment of an individual with piriformis syndrome focusing on hip muscle strengthening and movement re-education: A case report. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 40:103-111, 2010.
  • Pollard CD, Sigward SM, Powers CM. Limited hip and knee flexion during landing is associated with increased frontal plane knee motion and moments. Clin Biomech. 25:142-146, 2010.
  • Tsai LC, Sigward SM, Pollard CD, Fletcher MJ, Powers CM. The effects of fatigue and recovery on knee kinetics and kinematics during side-step cutting. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 41:1952-1957, 2009.
  • Kulig K, Beneck GJ, Selkowitz DM, Popovich JM Jr., Ge TT, Flanagan SP, Poppert EM, Yamada K,Powers CM, Azen S, Winstein CJ, Gordon J, Samudrala S, Chen TC, Shamie N, Khoo L, Spoonamore MJ, Wang JC and Physical Therapy Clinical Research Network (PTClinResNet), The effect of an intensive, progressive exercise program on functional performance in patients post single-level lumbar microdiscectomy. Physical Therapy. 89:1145-1157, 2009.
  • Tsai YJ, Powers CM. The influence of footwear sole hardness on utilized coefficient of friction during walking. Gait & Posture. 30:303-306, 2009.
  • Souza RB, Powers CM. Concurrent criterion-related validity and reliability of a clinical test to measure femoral anteversion. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 39:586-592, 2009.
  • Souza RB, Powers CM. Predictors of hip rotation during running: An evaluation of hip strength and femoral structure in women with and without patellofemoral pain. Am J Sports Med. 37:579-587, 2009.
  • Souza RB, Powers CM. Differences in hip kinematics, muscle strength and muscle activation between subjects with and without patellofemoral pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 39:12-19, 2009.
  • Sigward SM. Ota S, Powers CM. Predictors of frontal plane knee excursion during a drop landing in young female athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 38:661-667, 2008.
  • Brennglass A, Souza RB, Meyer J, Powers CM. Identification of abnormal hip motion associated with acetabular labral pathology: A resident’s case report. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 38:558-565, 2008.
  • Farrokhi S, Pollard CD, Souza R, Chen YJ, Reischl S, Powers CM. Trunk position influences lower extremity demands during the forward lunge exercise. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 38:403-409, 2008.
  • Tsai YJ, Powers CM. The influence of footwear sole hardness on slip initiation in young adults. J Forensic Sci. 53:884-888, 2008.
  • Powers CM, Doubleday KL, Escudero C. The influence of patellofemoral bracing on pain, knee extensor torque and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain. Physiother Theory Pract. 24:1-9, 2008.
  • Powers CM, Beneck GJ, Kulig K, Landel RF, Fredericson M. The effects of a single session of posterior to anterior spinal mobilization and press-ups on pain response and lumbar spine extension in persons with nonspecific low back pain. Phys Ther. 88:485-492, 2008.
  • Burke WS, Vangsness CT, Powers CM. Quantification of glenohumeral rhythm in persons with and without impingement. Am J Orthop. 37:24-30, 2008.
  • Landel RF, Kulig KK, Powers CM. Intertester reliability and validity of motion assessments during lumbar spine accessory motion testing. Phys Ther. 88:43-49, 2008.
  • Burnfield JM, Powers CM. The role of center of mass kinematics in predicting utilized coefficient of friction during walking. J Forensic Sci 52:1328-1333, 2007
  • Ward SR, Terk MR, Powers CM. Patella alta: Association with patellofemoral alignment and changes in contact area during weight bearing. J Bone & Joint Surg Am. 89:1749-1755, 2007.
  • Sigward S, Powers CM. Loading characteristics of female athletes who demonstrate excessive valgus moments at the knee during side-step cutting. Clin Biomech. 22:827-833, 2007.
  • Feller JA, Amis AA, Andrish JT, Arendt EA, Erasmus PJ, Powers CM. Surgical biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint. Arthroscopy. 23:542-553, 2007.
  • Pollard CD, Sigward S, Powers CM. Gender differences in hip joint kinematics and kinetics during a side-step cutting maneuver. Clin J Sports Med. 17:38-42, 2007.
  • Powers CM, Stefanou MA, Tsai YJ, Brault JR, Siegmund GP. Assessment of walkway tribometer readings in evaluating slip resistance: A gait based approach. J Forensic Sci. 52:400-405, 2007.
  • Kulig K, Powers CM, Landel R, Chen K, Fredericson M, Guillet M, Butts K. Segmental lumbar mobility in individuals with central low back pain: In-vivo assessment during passive and active motion using dynamic MRI. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 8:1-10, 2007.
  • Griffin LY, Albohm MJ, Arendt EA, Bahr R, Beynnon BD, DeMaio M, Dick RW, Engebretsen L, Garrett WE, Hannafin JA, Hewitt TE, Huston LJ, Ireland ML, Johnson RJ, Lephart S, Mandelbaum BR, Mann B, Marks RH, Marshal SW, Myklebust G, Noyes FR, Powers CM, Shields C, Schultz SJ, Silvers H, Slauterbeck J, Taylor D, Teitz CC, Wojtys EM, Yu B. Understanding and preventing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Am J Sports Med. 34:1512-1532, 2006.
  • Powers CM, Chen YJ, Scher I, Lee TQ. Influence of patellofemoral joint contact geometry on the modeling of three dimensional patellofemoral joint forces. J Biomech. 39:2783-2791, 2006.
  • Selkowitz DM, Kulig K, Poppert EM, Flanagan SP, Mathews Nd, Beneck GJ, Popovich JM, Lona JR, Yamada KA, Burke WS, Ervin C, Powers CM. The immediate and long-term effects of exercise and patient education on physical, functional, and quality of life outcome measures after single-level lumbar microdiscectomy: A randomized controlled trial protocol. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 7:1-15, 2006.
  • Ota S, Ward SR, Chen YJ, Tsai YJ, Powers CM. Concurrent Criterion-Related validity and reliability of a clinical device used to assess lateral patella displacement. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 36:645-652, 2006.
  • Powers CM, Chen YJ, Farrohki S, Lee TQ. The role of peripatellar retinaculum in the transmission of forces within the extensor mechanism. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 88:2042-2048, 2006.
  • Burnfield JM, Powers CM. Prediction of slips: An evaluation of utilized coefficient of friction and available slip resistance. Ergonomics. 49:982-995, 2006.
  • Pollard CD, Sigward SS, Pelley K, Ota S, Powers CM. The influence of an in-season injury prevention program on lower extremity kinematics during landing in young female soccer players. Clin J Sports Med. 16:223-227, 2006.
  • Sigward SM, Powers CM. The influence of experience on knee joint kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation patterns during side-step cutting in young females. Clin Biomech. 21:740-747, 2006.
  • Ganley KJ, Powers CM. Intersegmental dynamics during the swing phase of gait: A comparison of knee kinetics between 7 year old children and adults. Gait Posture. 23:499-504, 2006.
  • Sigward S, Powers CM. The influence of gender on knee joint kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation patterns during side-step cutting. Clin Biomech. 21:41-48, 2006.


Meet Chris Powers, along with Craig Liebenson, Bill Knowles, Coach Schexnayder, and Alan Grodin as they headline the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar this May 19-20th in Boston.

This is an event that you don't want to miss!


Click me


Topics: Art Horne, BSMPG, boston hockey summit, Charlie Weingroff, boston hockey conference, Andrea Hudy, Cal Dietz, Bill Knowles, Alan Grodin, Chris Powers

Foam Rolling and Contractile Muscle Properties by Jose Fernandez

Posted by Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group on Wed, Apr 25, 2012 @ 06:04 AM

article by Jose Fernandez




After reading last week´s posts from Coach Boyle and Carl Valle I decided to do a little research on Self Myofascial Release and foam rolling. What motivated me is that there is not a clear protocol stablished regarding when, how and for how long athletes should use foam rollers. Some coaches recommend to roll before working out and others after, some coaches prefer to just continuously roll over the muscle surface and others recommend to hold on the trigger point for a few seconds.

What is foam rolling? (by wikipedia):

“Foam rolling is a self-myofascial release (SMR) technique that is used by athletes and physical therapists to inhibit overactive muscles. This form of stretching utilizes the concept of autogenic inhibition to improve soft tissue extensibility, thus relaxing the muscle and allowing the activation of the antagonist muscle.

It is accomplished by rolling the foam roller under each muscle group until a tender area is found, and maintaining pressure on the tender area for 30–60 seconds.”

Looking at the scientific evidence, I could not find a lot of published material either. See below some of papers I found:

A comparison of the pressure exerted on soft tissue by 2 myofascial rollers

Foam Rollers Show No Increase in the Flexibility of the Hamstring Muscle Group

The Acute Effect Of Self-Myofascial Release On Lower Extremity Plyometric Performance

In this case study we used Tensiomyography (TMG) to assess the change in contractile muscle properties (contraction time and muscle tone) after applying 2 different protocols with foam rollers. Click here to see one of my previous post with a detailed explanation about TMG and the information that it provides.

Foam Rolling & TMG Case Study:

The purpose of this case study was to analyse the change in contractile muscle properties assessed with TMG before and after applying two different SMR protocols using a foam roller. Characteristics of the roller that we used can be found here.

A professional basketball player (Age:22, H: 6.2ft, W: 198.4lbs, no injuries) with more than 6 months experience using foam rollers volunteered for the test, which was performed after a day off and consisted of assessing the Left Vastus Lateralis (dominant leg) with TMG before and after applying two different rolling interventions.

Protocol 1: Holding on the trigger point

- TMG Initial assessment on resting conditions

- Roll until the area of maximum pain is found. Hold the roll on that point for 30 seconds. Immediately after the 30 seconds continue rolling 5-6 times over the whole muscle surface

- TMG Post treatment Assessment 

Protocol 2: Cotinuous Rolling

- TMG Initial assessment

- Continuously roll over the whole muscle surface for 60 seconds

- TMG Post treatment Assessment


Protocol 1:


Click HERE to continue reading this article...


Click me


Topics: athletic training conference, boston hockey conference, barefoot strength training, Andrea Hudy, Bruce Williams, Cal Dietz, Bill Knowles, Alan Grodin, Jose Fernandez

Q: What Has 9 NCAA Ice Hockey Championship Rings and Will Be In Boston May 19th and 20th?

Posted by Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group on Mon, Apr 23, 2012 @ 07:04 AM


Answer: Attendees at the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar!

There's a reason the nation's top Performance Coaches, Athletic Trainers, and Therapists come back to Boston year after year! Join the following coaches and learn how you can help your team this off-season and prepare for a championship run in 2013!


Russ DeRosa - Boston College Men's Ice Hockey 2008, 2010, 2012 National Champions

Mike Boyle - Boston University Men's Ice Hockey 1995, 2009 National Champions

Jim Snider - University of Wisconsin Women's Ice Hockey 2009, 2011 National Champions

Cal Dietz - University of Minnesota Women's Ice Hockey 2010, 2012 National Champions



Looking for that edge in your team's training for this coming season?  Join Hockey's elite performance coaches and therapists at the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar!


BSMPG Hockey Summit

Hurry!! Seats are limited - There's only room for so many championship trophy's in the same room!


Click me


Topics: boston hockey conference, Mike Boyle, Jim Snider, Cal Dietz

Interval Training vs. Aerobic Base? - The Answer May Surprise You

Posted by Boston Sports Medicine and Performance Group on Fri, Apr 13, 2012 @ 07:04 AM


Joel Jamieson

Recently, there has been a sudden shift from the once poplular and often prescribed high intensity interval training to at least a greater appreciation and understanding of the aerobic system and its contribution to elite physical conditioning and game preparation.  At the heart of this subject matter is none other than Joel Jamieson - BSMPG 2012 Summer Seminar Speaker.

Learn more from Joel along with a number of the country's top performance coaches at the 2012 BSMPG Summer Seminar.  But don't wait - seats are limited and this event is sure to sell out again this year!

Click me


Excerpt from:



Method #5 Threshold Training


At the beginning of this chapter, I told you that it was important to increase how much power you could generate aerobically so that you had to rely less on fatiguing anaerobic processes to generate the necessary ATP. The threshold training method is very effective at helping you increase your aerobic power and achieve this goal. The basic premise of the method is very simple, by working your aerobic system to the maximum limits of its energy production abilities, the body adapts by increasing the total number of aerobic enzymes and improving overall contractile properties. As a result, the maximum rate of aerobic energy production increases.

If you’ll recall from earlier, the point where your body begins to shift the majority of its ATP generation from aerobic to anaerobic is known as the anaerobic threshold. This is a very important point because it reflects the maximum sustainable output that your aerobic system is capable of. If we can raise your anaerobic threshold and/or increase your power output at the threshold, then you’ll have to rely less on the anaerobic systems and you’ll have better endurance.

Although there is definitely some genetic influence that determines where your anaerobic threshold is, it’s also a very trainable quality because we can dramatically increase how much power you’re able to produce aerobically through the proper training methods. Threshold training is one of the methods and consists of training at heart rates at or near your anaerobic threshold for different periods of time. Because you are essentially asking your body to produce ATP as fast as it possibly can while predominantly using the aerobic system, this method places a great deal of stress on the entire system and provides a strong stimulus for it to improve. This is one of the reasons it is so effective, but it also means you have to be fairly precise in determining your threshold.

For maximum effectiveness, you want to train in a heart range that is within +/- 5 bpm of your anaerobic threshold. Unfortunately, there is no simple and easy way for most people to determine where their anaerobic thresholds are exactly. The most accurate way is through a gas exchange test done at an exercise performance lab, but this is obviously impractical for most people. If you have access to a metabolic testing center in your area, this can offer an effective way to determine your threshold and it typically runs between $75 and $125 for the test.

Aside from using a laboratory testing procedure, it can be difficult to get an accurate gauge of where exactly your anaerobic threshold is. The next best alternative is to use a simple test I came up with and perform 3x5 minute sparring rounds at a relatively high pace with a heart rate monitor on. If you don’t spar, then you can do 3x5 minute pad rounds or something comparable such as the modified coopers test as described in  a later chapter.

For the test, you will need to use a heart rate monitor with a lap function and I specifically recommend the Polar RS100 for this purpose. If you don’t have one of these yet you can order one directly from my website at All you have to do is record your average heart rate for each of the three rounds, excluding the 60s break between rounds, and take your average heart rate over the entire 3 rounds. While there is no research on this approach to show it accurately reflects your anaerobic threshold, I’ve found it to be reasonably close for most people and it is much better than just guessing.

Once you have found your average heart rate over the three rounds, this is the heart rate number you should use for the threshold training method. To use the threshold method, all you have to do is keep your heart rate at +/- 5 bpm for repetitions of 3-10 minutes at a time using different types of exercises. Many athletes use this method in the form of circuit style training, although they rarely pay attention to where their heart rate is during the circuit. You can use running, MMA drills and sparring, cycling, etc. But keep in mind you’ll need to lower your heart rate range by 5-10 bpm in activities where you are sitting or lying down.


Topics: athletic training conference, boston hockey summit, boston hockey conference, Joel Jamieson