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Post-exercise recovery





Effects of whole-body cryostimulation exposure in sport and medicine


- Written by Christophe Hausswirth, France (@HausswirthC)

Article orginally published on


Elite athletes often train intensitively or compete over consecutive days. Cumulative fatigue over such periods of training or competition can reduce athletic performance. Adequate recovery between training sessions and/or competitive events is therefore essential to minimise the risk of fatigue and optimise performance. In this context, the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) as a tool to aid recovery shows benefits on some inflammatory parameters, possible improvement of antioxidant status and improvements in mood and mild depression. Heating the body is supposed to be beneficial to athletes' recovery, to treat muscle pain and as part of rehabilitation after injury. It has been already demonstrated that WBC stimulates the physiological reactions of an organism which results in analgesic, anti-swelling, antalgic immune and circulatory system reactions and could improve recovery after muscular trauma injury. Definition is needed as to the precise context in which athletes may use this tool to optimise recovery in relation to improving sleep patterns, optimising the parasympathetic system and increasing their general well-being.



Exercise-related stress is often increased due to environmental conditions, particularly those relating to temperature changes. For every sporting activity there is an ideal ambient temperature. Any deviation from this reference temperature will have a negative impact on performance.


Indeed, physical activity in a warm or cold atmosphere means that the body and the mechanisms involved in temperature regulation have to work harder. Although very effective, these thermoregulatory mechanisms may not be able to cope with extreme conditions.


They do, however, allow the body to adapt during chronic exposure. Artificial cooling of ambient temperature is an evolving technique, both to prepare athletes for competitions in difficult conditions and to improve the body’s recovery capacity.



The first very low temperature cold rooms appeared in Japan in 1989, when Yamauchi used a cryogenic chamber to treat rheumatism. The indications for WBC were subsequently extended to various inflammatory conditions. WBC was then offered to treat pain and prevent post-traumatic oedema, with exposure limited to to 2 to 3 minutes.


One of the most well-established physiological responses to cold exposure is triggered by the decrease in skin temperature, promptly stimulating cutaneous receptors and their sensory afferents to excite sympathetic adrenergic fibres, in turn causing the constriction of local arterioles and venules. The resulting decrease in blood flow to the periphery or injured/inflammed tissues reduces local metabolic processes, thereby attenuating the inflammatory response and the formation of oedema around the injured tissues1.


Reported reasons for using WBC include decreased joint pain and disorders, improved general well-being, decreased fatigue perception2 and reduced symptoms of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression3. WBC is also extensively used in self-treatment or body hardening against respiratory tract infections and musculoskeletal pain4, as well as parasympathetic reactivation after intensive exercise5.


Continue to read this article by clicking HERE.  


Register TODAY for the 2015 BSMPG Summer Seminar before seats fill up.


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Boston, Basketball, and BSMPG




Attention Basketball Performance Coaches


Join the leaders in Sports Medicine and Performance Training this May 15-16th in Boston for a multidisciplinary seminar that has more basketball content available than teams in March Madness! Your greatest challenge will be deciding which breakout session to attend throughout the two days!


Keynote Sessions

Dr. Robert Sapolsky: Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers – Stress, Disease and Coping

James Anderson: Realizing Tri-Planer Performance through the Respiratory Diaphragm

Al Smith: Helping People Be Their Best – A Journey From Specialism To Systems Thinking

Vincent Walsh: Sport – The Brain’s Greatest Challenge?

The Canadian National Basketball Performance Team:  Developing a Performance Team - A Look Behind the Curtain


Breakout Sessions

James Anderson: The lateralized Foot and Ankle Pattern and the Pronated Left Chest

Al Smith: Lost in Translation – The Appliance of Science in High Performance Sport

Sam Coad: Elite Athlete Monitoring Systems – Methods and Techniques for Assessing Recovery in Athletes

Charlie Weingroff: Utilizing a Movement Profile Into Your Neural Net

Eric Oetter: NeuroImmune Plasicity – The Substrate of Performance

Jay DeMayo: Athlete Preparation – An Open Discussion on U of Richmond’s Results Oriented Approach

Roman Fomin: Windows of Trainability

Sam Gibbs: TBA (Believe us it will be awesome)

Mike Davis: Bridging the Gap Between Rehab and High Performance

Mike Davis: Using Micro-movements to Manipulate Massive Movements




Register for the BSMPG 2015 Summer Seminar Today!

Recovery Techniques for Athletes




Article orginally published on


High performance sport and the importance of successful performances have led athletes and coaches to continually seek any advantage or edge that may improve performance. It follows that the rate and quality of recovery is extremely important for the high performance athlete and that optimal recovery may provide numerous benefits during repetitive high-level training and competition. Therefore, investigating different recovery interventions and their effect on fatigue, muscle injury, recovery and performance is important.


Recovery aims to restore physiological and psychological processes, so that the athlete can compete or train again at an appropriate level. Recovery from training and competition is complex and involves numerous factors. It is also typically dependent on the nature of the exercise performed and any other outside stressors that the athlete may be exposed to. Athletic performance is affected by numerous factors and therefore, adequate recovery should also consider such factors (Table 1).



There are a number of popular methods used by athletes to enhance recovery. Their use will depend on the type of activity performed, the time until the next training session or event, and equipment and/or personnel available. Some of the most popular recovery techniques for athletes include:

  • hydrotherapy,
  • active recovery,
  • stretching,
  • compression garments,
  • massage,
  • sleep and
  • nutrition.




Although the function of sleep is not fully understood, it is generally accepted that it serves to recover from previous wakefulness and/or prepare for functioning in the subsequent wake period.  An individual’s recent sleep history therefore has a marked impact on their daytime functioning. Restricting sleep to less than 6 hours per night for four or more consecutive nights has been shown to impair cognitive performance and mood, disturb glucose metabolism, appetite regulation and immune function.  This type of evidence has led to the recommendation that adults should obtain 8 hours of sleep per night.


While there are considerable data available related to the amount of sleep obtained by adults in the general population, there are few published data related to the amount of sleep obtained by elite athletes. 


Sleep deprivation

There are a limited number of studies which have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on athletic performance.  From the available data it appears that several phenomena exist.  Firstly, the sleep deprivation must be greater than 30 hours (one complete night of no sleep and remaining awake into the afternoon) to have an impact on anaerobic performance (Skein et al., 2011). Secondly, aerobic performance may be decreased after only 24 hours (Oliver et al, 2009) and thirdly, sustained or repeated bouts of exercise are affected to a greater degree than one-off maximal efforts.


The mechanism behind the reduced performance following prolonged sustained sleep deprivation is not clear, however it has been suggested that an increased perception of effort is one potential cause. While the above studies provide some insight into the relationship between sleep deprivation and performance, most athletes are more likely to experience acute bouts of partial sleep deprivation where sleep is reduced for several hours on consecutive nights.


Partial sleep deprivation

Only a small number of studies have examined the effect of partial sleep deprivation on athletic performance.  From the available research it appears that sub-maximal prolonged tasks may be more affected than maximal efforts particularly after the first two nights of partial sleep deprivation (Reilly et al, 1994).


Effects of sleep extension and napping

Another means of examining the effect of sleep on performance is to extend the amount of sleep an athlete receives and determine the effects on subsequent performance. Information from the small number of studies suggests that increasing the amount of sleep an athlete receives may significantly enhance performance.


Athletes suffering from some degree of sleep loss may benefit from a brief nap, particularly if a training session is to be completed in the afternoon or evening.  Naps can markedly reduce sleepiness and can be beneficial when learning skills, strategy or tactics in sleep deprived individuals. Napping may be beneficial for athletes who have to routinely wake early for training or competition and for athletes who are experiencing sleep deprivation.


Habitual sleep duration

According to a 2005 Gallup Poll in the USA, the average self-reported sleep duration of healthy individuals is 6.8 hours on weekdays and 7.4 hours on weekends (National Sleep Foundation, 2006). However, the sleep habits of elite athletes have only recently been investigated. Leeder et al (2012) compared the sleep habits of 47 elite athletes from Olympic sports using actigraphy over a 4-day period to that of age and gender-matched non-sporting controls. The athlete group had a total time in bed of 8:36 hour:minutes, compared to 8:07 in the control group. Despite the longer time in bed, the athlete group had a longer sleep latency (time to fall asleep) (18.2 minutes vs 5.0 minutes), a lower sleep efficiency (estimate of sleep quality) than controls (80.6 vs 88.7%), resulting in a similar time asleep (6:55 vs 7:11 hour:minutes). The results demonstrated that while athletes had a comparable quantity of sleep to controls, significant differences were observed in the quality of sleep between the two groups (Leeder et al, 2012).


While the above data was obtained during a period of normal training without competition, athletes may experience disturbed sleep prior to important competition or games. Erlacher et al. (2011) administered a questionnaire to 632 German athletes to assess possible sleep disturbances prior to competition. Of these athletes, 66% (416) reported that they slept worse than normal at least once prior to an important competition. Of these 416 athletes, 80% reported problems falling asleep, 43% reported waking up early in the morning and 32% reported waking up at night. Factors such as thoughts about competition (77%), nervousness about competition (60%), unusual surroundings (29%) and noise in the room (17%) were identified as reasons for poor sleep (Erlacher et al, 2011).


BSMPG 2015 - Agenda Announced!

Attention all BSMPGer's - Only three weeks remain until our early bird pricing runs out for our 2015 Summer Seminar!

This year's event features Dr. Stress himself, Robert Sapolsky as well as Al Smith and Vincent Walsh from the UK.  Join the leaders in Sports Medicine and Performance training for this two day event.  Sign up today to avoid disappointment - this event is sure to sell out!


BSMPG day 1




Register TODAY for the 2015 BSMPG Summer Seminar before seats fill up.


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The Center of Hockey is Boston and BSMPG




Attention Hockey Performance Coaches


Join the leaders in Sports Medicine and Performance Training this May 15-16th in Boston for a multidisciplinary seminar that has more hockey content available than you can waive a stick at! Your greatest challenge will be deciding which breakout session to attend throughout the two days!


Keynote Sessions

Dr. Robert Sapolsky: Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers – Stress, Disease and Coping

James Anderson: Realizing Tri-Planer Performance through the Respiratory Diaphragm

Al Smith: Helping People Be Their Best – A Journey From Specialism To Systems Thinking

Vincent Walsh: Sport – The Brain’s Greatest Challenge?

The Canadian National Basketball Performance Team:  Developing a Performance Team - A Look Behind the Curtain


Breakout Sessions

James Anderson: The lateralized Foot and Ankle Pattern and the Pronated Left Chest

Al Smith: Lost in Translation – The Appliance of Science in High Performance Sport

Sam Coad: Elite Athlete Monitoring Systems – Methods and Techniques for Assessing Recovery in Athletes

Charlie Weingroff: Utilizing a Movement Profile Into Your Neural Net

Eric Oetter: NeuroImmune Plasicity – The Substrate of Performance

Andy O’Brien:  TBD

Roman Fomin: Windows of Trainability

Sam Gibbs: TBA (Believe us it will be awesome)

Mike Davis: Bridging the Gap Between Rehab and High Performance

Mike Davis: Using Micro-movements to Manipulate Massive Movements





Register for the BSMPG 2015 Summer Seminar Today!

February means BSMPG registration and hotel booking

The giants in Sports Medicine & Human Performance return to Boston May 15 and 16, 2015.



BSMPG 2015


Listen, Boston is a popular place in May - graduations, family reunions, Red Sox games and of course your own BSMPG Summer Seminar. Be sure to find a Boston friend to crash with or book your hotel room today (worse case scenario you can always cancel your room if you find a friend last minute right?). 

Book your HOTEL today.  


"BSMPG is a great seminar to attend. It is a smaller conference filled with intelligence and passion that creates a strong atmosphere for people to learn, network and grow. Thanks for a great weekend BSMPG!"


LeeAnne Ketchen MS, ATC


"This was my first BSMPG meeting. After hearing about it for a number of years from colleagues regarding the quality of topics, and the quality of the organization, I can tell you Boston will now be an annual visit on my conference calendar!"


Lorne Goldenberg BPE, CSCS


"The presenters at BSMPG had such a dominant grasp of the content they were presenting, it created an electric learning environment even for some of the most successful strength coaches, therapists and trainers out there. This was the best continuing education experience I have ever had."


-Sam Sturgis


Register TODAY for the 2015 BSMPG Summer Seminar before seats fill up.


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Data-led team building: increasing the odds of success



“You don’t put a team together with a computer” said Grady Fuson to Billy Beane in the 2011 movie Moneyball. “Baseball isn’t just numbers. It’s not science. If it was, anybody could do what we do, but they can’t because they don’t know what we know. They don’t have our experience and they don’t have our intuition.”

It may be a quote straight out of the Hollywood playbook, but Moneyball is based on author Michael Lewis’ non-fiction work Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game, which tracks the Oakland Athletics baseball team’s ascent under general manager Billy Beane and his use of an analytical, evidence-based,sabermetric approach to assembling a competitive team.

The probability of success

Once a novel approach, data-led team selection is now a commonly deployed tactic in many sports. Similarly, technology and data analysis are being adopted by businesses to recruit personnel, select and form teams, and inform strategic thinking. So what are the advantages to using a data-centric approach in both disciplines?

Jonathan Leeder, physiologist at the English Institute of Sport explains that increasing the probability of success by finding areas for marginal gains is the whole point of data analysis. “You can’t guarantee success, but you can increase the odds of it,” he says.

In team sports in particular, technology and data is used to aid team selection, in addition to shaping training and tactics. Bill Gerrard, professor of business and sports analytics at Leeds University, is perhaps better known for his collaboration with Moneyball’s Beane around football, or what Beane might refer to as soccer. He explains how using technology and data helps to “establish a culture of evidence-based decisions which forces coaches to consider all of the factors involved in a decision on team selection, to clarify what the evidence is on each factor, and to make explicit the relative importance of different factors.”

So using data to inform team selection provides a more comprehensive view of likely outcomes. The more you can understand what a player’s peak performance levels are as a benchmark, the more you can assess their condition and readiness for a match. It stands to reason that if you aren’t using the data capabilities open to you, your competitors will be, so the likelihood is you will be behind before you’ve started.

Indeed, data-led team selection has become so integral to strategy and tactics in rugby that the RFU declined to comment for this article. Both the England and Ireland camps cited the “sensitive nature of the metrics” as the reason.

Data analysis, says Gerrard, has changed the tactics deployed in the Six Nations. “It has helped teams identify their strengths and weaknesses and clarify the critical success factors, some of which can be surprising.”

In the business world, data analysis and metrics-led recruitment is also gaining momentum. James Webb is the managing director at Propel London, a recruitment consultancy specialising in technology and digital. Performance data, he says, “plays a key role in a sales person, for example, getting through the door to an interview.”

Scott Ross, chief technology officer at global marketing and technology agency,DigitasLBi, explains that the recruitment market moves so fast that “the more we can pre-qualify our candidates, the more likely we are to find talent within their ever-shortening window of availability.”

People, not robots

Data analysis in sport has its limitations, as it does in recruitment. “Some key aspects of player performance are not particularly amenable to analysis,” says Gerrard. “How to blend together a group of individual players into a team so that the whole is more than the sum of the parts is more a matter of judgement than analysis,” he continues.

Continue to read this article by clicking HERE.


Register TODAY for the 2015 BSMPG Summer Seminar before seats fill up.


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BSMPG Hosts Andreo Spina and FAP/FR Course - May 2015

Andreo Spina


"If a practitioner cannot define what they are feeling for in any realistic, scientific manner, then what is the outcome measures guiding their treatment?  By this I don’t mean the outcome measure used to define success in the eyes of patients such as pain or range of motion.  I mean what is the tactile finding that, on a moment-by-moment basis, guidance the practitioners treatment?  How does one know when soft tissue ‘release’ procedures are appropriate vs. passive modalities?  How does one know the needed amplitude and direction of force to apply?  How does one know when the treatment is over?  These and many other questions require that the practitioner is able to palpably distinguish between normal and abnormal anatomic structure, and further that they have a working definition/understanding of what they are looking for."

- Andreo Spina



Interview by Patrick Ward,


1) Thanks for taking the time out of your busy clinical and teaching schedule to do this interview, Dr. Spina. Can you please give the readers a short overview of your background??

Sure thing…

I studied Kinesiology at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.  I later graduated with summa cum laude and clinic honors from the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College as a Doctor of Chiropractic and subsequently completed the two-year post-graduate fellowship in sports sciences. During my time studying Chiropractic, I became the first pre-graduate student to tutor in the cadaver laboratory in the department of Human Anatomy, a position that continued throughout my post-graduate fellowship program.

Stemming from my passion of studying and teaching anatomy, in 2006 I created Functional Anatomic Palpation Systems (F.A.P.)™ which is a systematic approach to soft tissue assessment and palpation.  Following the success of F.A.P. seminars, I later created a follow up system of soft tissue release and rehabilitation called Functional Range Release (F.R.)® technique which is now being utilized by manual practitioners around the world including the medical staffs of various professional sports organizations.  I then combined the scientific knowledge gained during my studies with my 29 years of martial arts training in various disciplines to create the third installment of my curriculum, Functional Range Conditioning (FRC)™, which is a system of mobility conditioning and joint strengthening.

Aside from my work teaching seminars, I also own a sports centre in Toronto, Ontario where I practice and train clients.  I am a published researcher, and I have authored chapters in various sports medicine textbooks.

2) You approach to soft tissue therapy is extremely comprehensive and, after having attending one of your courses before, it is obvious that you have spent a lot of time reading research in order to develop your thought processes and theories about what may be taking place when we apply contact to another person’s body. The fascial system is a big part of your approach and the concept of the fascial system and how the body is connected has gained a lot of popularity in recent years. Can you please explain your approach and this concept you refer to as “Bioflow Anatomy”?

To say that the Functional Range Release system has a sole focus on fascia is not entirely accurate actually, although it might have been in the not so distant past.  Further examination of literature has led/forced me to be more inclusive of other tissues, which together constitute the most abundant type of tissue in the human body, namely Connective Tissue (CT).  Examples of other tissues inclusive in CT other than fascia include bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, lymphatic tissues…and even 80% of nerve structure.  When contemplating the effects of manual therapy ‘inputs,’ or even training inputs for that matter, we must be inclusive of all of these tissue types as each of them will equally adapt to applied inputs.  To say that with a particular soft tissue technique application I am affecting one tissue vs. another is as inaccurate as claiming that any particular exercise targets a single tissue, which is in fact impossible.  This line of thought stems from literature examining the effects of load inputs on cellular/subcellular processes…a topic that we dive into deeply in the FR Release curriculum.


Continue to read the rest of this article by clicking HERE  

Thanks to Patrick Ward for this interview!


Register for Andreo Spina's FAP/FR SPINE course in Boston, May 22-24, 2015 HERE.  







A Feeling of Control


Article orginally published on by David Desteno

cookie monster


The ability to delay gratification has been held up as the one character trait to rule them all—the key to academic success, financial security, and social well-being. But willpower isn’t the answer. The new, emotional science of self-regulation.


The children’s television show Sesame Street has always had a way of reflecting the zeitgeist in shades of Muppet fur. Consider, for instance, the evolution of Cookie Monster. For his first few decades on air, he was a simple character: blue, ravenous, cookie-fixated; a lovably unleashed id. A 1990 White House report dubbed him “the quintessential consumer.” But in the mid-2000s, as concern mounted over childhood obesity, Cookie Monster’s tastes became a problem. So he went from devouring cookies to guzzling bowls of fruit. Then, last year, he changed yet again, as the show’s curriculum designers saw in his voracious appetite a different kind of teaching opportunity.

For the show’s 44th season on the air, Cookie Monster was essentially repurposed into a full-time, walking, talking, googly-eyed vehicle for a set of intensely fashionable ideas about psychology and success. The blue Muppet was now, as an official Sesame Street website put it, a “poster child for someone needing to master self-regulation skills.”

For the duration of the new season, Cookie lusted after his favorite treat as much as ever. But when it came to acting on his desires, he sang, quite literally, a different tune: “Me want it, but me wait.” In sketch after sketch, song after song, he struggled mightily with self-control, strained to keep his focus on long-term goals, and collected mental strategies to delay gratification.

In one segment, Cookie Monster appears as a contestant on a game show and is presented with a single cookie on a plate. “This is The Waiting Game,” shouts the lantern-jawed Muppet host, “and if you wait to eat the cookie until I get back, you get two cookies.” As the host dashes away, Cookie Monster’s ordeal begins. He tries singing to himself. Then he pretends the cookie is only a picture. Next he distracts himself by playing with a toy, and finally imagines that the cookie is a smelly fish. “Me need new strategy,” he says as one mental trick gives out to another. A pair of back-up singers pops up every few seconds to croon that “good things come to those who wait.” Finally, the host returns with the second cookie. The exhausted monster’s patience has paid off.

If something about this sketch sounds familiar, there’s a reason. The writers of Sesame Street based it closely on one of the most famous experiments of 20th century psychological science—one that has become known colloquially as the marshmallow test. Substitute marshmallows for cookies and a four-year-old for Cookie Monster, and you have almost exactly the challenge that the psychologist Walter Mischel posed to kids again and again at a Stanford nursery school in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The kids could eat the marshmallow placed in front of them, or delay gratification by resisting the temptation for a few minutes. If they were patient—if they could demonstrate self-control—they’d be rewarded with a second morsel of sugary goodness.


Continue to read this article by clicking HERE.


Register TODAY for the 2015 BSMPG Summer Seminar before seats fill up.


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2015 CATAPULT Performance Directors Meeting - Welcomes Rob Panariello : Bridging the Medical-Performance Gap

BSMPG is proud to announce ROB PANARIELLO as a speaker at the 2015 CATAPULT Performance Directors Meeting - Sunday May 17th, 2015 - Fenway Park.

Join the leaders in Sports Medicine and Performance Training for this one day event following the 2015 BSMPG Summer Seminar - May 15-16th, 2015.  Inquire at - serious thought leaders only!


Mission of the CATAPULT Performance Directors Meeting: To provide the leaders in performance training and medical oversight an opportunity to engage with leaders of similar attitude, vision, and entrepreneurial spirit, while pursuing innovative strategies in performance methodology. 

This is a limited capacity event and will be held to 50 of the top thought and change leaders from across the globe.


robert panariello







Topic: Bridging the Medical-Performance Gap

Rob is a graduate of Ithaca College with a B.S. in both Physical Therapy and Physical Education/Athletic Training. He also holds a Masters Degree in Exercise Physiology from Queens College. He is a licensed Physical Therapist, NATA Certified Athletic Trainer and NSCA Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist. Rob has more than 30 years in the field of Athletic Training Sports Rehabilitation and Athletic Performance.

Rob has studied the science of strength and conditioning in the former East Germany, Soviet Union and Bulgaria. His experience includes 10 years (1986 – 1995) as the Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at St. John’s University, the World League of American Football’s NY/NJ Knights (1991) and the WUSA NY POWER Women’s Professional Soccer League, (2001-2002). He serves as a consultant to many NFL, NBA and University teams and strength coaches.

He is nationally renowned in the field of Sports Medicine Rehabilitation and Strength and Conditioning. Rob lectures nationally on these topics and has over 60 peer reviewed publications.

Rob received the prestigious National Strength and Conditioning Association President’s Award in 1998 and is in the USA Strength and Conditioning Coaches Hall of Fame.


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